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History and sulfur

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History sulfur Sulphur is its Latin name was known from ancient times. It called Brimstone in the Bible Pentateuch. Homer also sulfur insecticide in the 9th century BC had mentioned. In 424 BC, the tribe Bootier the walls of a city by burning a mixture of coal, sulfur burning mixture of coal, sulfur, burnt and destroyed. Sometime in the 12th century in China, powder which is a mixture of potassium nitrate KNO3 carbon, and sulfur was discovered.

Early alchemists gave sulfur triangle icon at the top of the line have been considered. The alchemists knew from experience that the element mercury can be combined with sulfur.

Syvknd was originally meant an oath or sulfur. In the past, one of the ultimate ways to prove charges or acquittal of the accused, sulfur water fed to them.

If the accused after taking the oath of sulfur or survives, was ruled to acquit him. The so-called oath that emphasizes the accuracy of his words is, in principle, taken from the same code. In the late 1770s, Antoine Lavoisier was able to convince the scientific community that sulfur was an element and not a compound.

Sulfur characteristics: It appears yellow metal is very light and soft. When combined with hydrogen fluoride to have a distinct odor that is similar to the smell of rotten eggs. Sulfur burns with a blue flame that emits a peculiar suffocating odor. Not dissolve in water, but in carbon disulfide, sulfur (sulfur and carbon) can be solved. Common oxidation states of +2 and +4 and +6 element (2) and the 2- and reducing 4+ and 6+ tend to have stable work and 4+ and 6+ modes of rule of eight ( referring to the structure of sulfur) do not follow. Sulfur in all forms of liquid, solid and gas forms that have multiple relationships are not completely understood. Crystalline sulfur to sulfur ring S8 is shown.

Polymeric sulfur nitride has metallic properties, while there is no metal atoms (metalloid). This element also has unusual electrical and optical properties. Amorphous sulfur or plastic with a fast cooling crystalline sulfur. X-ray studies show that amorphous species and Nzv may have an eight atom per spiral helical structure.

Sulfur can be obtained in two crystalline orthorhombic (sulfur Octagon) or mono-clinic crystal former is stable at ordinary temperatures.

Allotrope of sulfur: sulfur allotrope is over thirty, more than any other element. S8, along with several other known types of rings. Removing one atom from the crown gives S7 and S8 is a darker yellow than that. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis shows that elemental sulfur is usually in the form of a mixture of S7 and S8 with S6 is a small amount. S12 and S18 are also seen as a bigger rings.

Amorphous solid or sulfur (plastic) through the rapid cooling of molten sulfur is obtained, for example, pouring on water. X-ray crystallographic studies have shown that amorphous sulfur may have coil structures that weighs eight atoms per order. This polymer system could be due to the elasticity of amorphous sulfur.

Isotopes: S 25 isotopes, of which four are stable: 34S (4.21%), 33S (0.75%), 32S (95.02%) and 36S (0.02%). Except 35S with a half-life of 87 days, there is a collision 40Ar. The rest of the sulfur isotopes have a half-life of less than three hours.the lake water is contaminated.

Metabolism of sulfur and sulfur cycles: the first cycle biogeochemical cycle of sulfur to be discovered. In the 1880s, are studying Bgyvtva (a bacterium that lives in environments rich in sulfur) Sergei Vinogradsky discovered that the bacteria as an energy source, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide and Tkyl drop between the cell. Vyngradsky to this form of metabolism called oxidation of inorganic compounds and worked on it until the 1950s, along with Selman Waksman.

Sulfur oxidizers can be used as an energy source. Hydrogen sulfide, sulfur, pure, sulfite, thiosulfate and several poly-tuned (such as Ttratyvnat) are of this category. They sulfite oxidase enzymes, such as sulfur dioxide and oxy-sex sulphate to oxidize sulfur to rely on. Some bacteria and archaea use of hydrogen sulfide in the water as an electron donor to do chemical synthesis. A process similar to photosynthesis and the resulting oxygen as electron acceptor sugar will be used. Photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria use of pure oxygen to carry out such oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur. The primary bacteria that live in the deep ocean hydrothermal vents on the side, they oxidize hydrogen sulfide. Annelid great a great example of organisms that contain hydrogen sulfide are used as food.

Sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfate instead of oxygen they breathe. They can be oxidized on Gvgrdhay such as thiosulfate, iTunes, polysulfide and sulfites grow. Hydrogen sulfide, created by flatulence is caused by bacteria.

Sulfur is absorbed by plants through the roots from the soil to form sulfate absorb. Sulfate is reduced to sulfide, which is then included in cysteine ​​and other sulfur-containing organic compounds.

Minerals: sulfur element in nature as a pure, natural, or in combination with other sulfide and sulfate metal and nonmetal elements found Shvd.gvgrd cold and pure yellow, but mostly due to high temperatures or impurities Change color. The crystallization system, this type of therapy for alpha sulfur (Rvmbyk or octahedral), sulfur beta (monoclinic or charter), sulfur-gamma (plastics) and sulfur amorphous (colloidal) is.

Elemental sulfur with other elements found in several minerals, most notably, pyrite, marcasite, pyrrhotite, chalcocite, covellite, bornite, sphalerite, anhydrite, gypsum and so on.

· Origin redox deposits: These resources are usually small Kawecki and rocks fill the gaps.

· Deposits of thermal origin: sulfur in the chemical reaction between hydrocarbons and anhydrite deposits in the heat and high pressure is created.

· Sulfide sulfur deposits:

1.kansarhay sulfidic iron: sulfur in combination with other elements in sulfides can be found. Sulfur in these deposits, non-ferrous minerals pyrite and pyrrhotite comes with. Also in sedimentary deposits of iron sulfide layer that has zones are found sulfur.

2.kansarhay sulfidic non-ferrous metal: sulfur and sulfur minerals such as sphalerite retrieved.

· Sulfate deposits from the largest sources of sulfur are. Sulfur in minerals such as gypsum and anhydrite these deposits is associated with. Also comes with barium sulfate to be found.

· Natural gas and oil are the most important reserves of sulfur in the world today. From these sources, natural gas and sour gas or hydrogen sulfide and sulfur-free gas extracted as a mobile product is retrieved. Sulfur crude oil and natural gas there also. On the other hand are worth noting about the corrosive sulfur compounds in petroleum and damaging distribution equipment.

· Tar sands and oil: sulfur is present as organic complexes and mobile as when refining their product is achieved.

· Oceans: sulfur sulfate dissolved in ocean water for calcium, magnesium and potassium there. According Bramar 2001, Canada, the Netherlands, Spain, China and America have the world's highest sulfur reserves.

Sulfur deposits in Iran: More deposits of sulfur in combination with sour gas and oil resources as one of the sources with relatively large amounts of sulfur produced and exported.Semnan cited.

Total deposits of sulfur is about 50 units, of which only Delazian mine in Semnan, with the highest purity for organic farming products. Save announced by the mine about 5.7 million tons.

Sulfur production: in terms of deposits, sulfur can be obtained using either open pit and underground. Mining methods and mineral sulfur and other minerals is different and has its own methodology and technology. The natural sulfur deposits in traditional mining methods are used to extract the mineral. Frasch sulfur extraction from salt domes is done with the method. The hot water through wells to inject sulfur, sulfur in liquid form then driven out of the ground.

The sulfur processing, using different concentration (condensed) to enrich their mineral. These include the following:

· The relative concentration of sulfur by flotation and refining.

· Processed by autoclaving, before or after the relative concentration and refinement.

· Relative concentration and smelting and refining without smoothing.

· Distillation iron ore in containers and connect them to condensation on the outside of the furnace room and preparation room sulfur condensate (used in Japan).

Mining economy: sulfur is produced globally distributed in 70 countries.

Argentina has produced thousands of tons per year less than the smallest producer in the world. 11 countries are major producers of sulfur in the production volumes from the United States, Canada, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Germany, United Arabic Emirates, Kazakhstan, Iran, Mexico and Poland for a total amount of 34 million tons of sulfur produced in 2002 that 79 percent of the total world production of sulfur in the above.

Sulfur is a critical element in agriculture and industry in all countries of the world have a variety of uses. 12 major consumer countries including the United States, China, Morocco, Russia, India, Brazil, Tunisia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, Germany and Australia, which includes the 70 percent global average sulfur Assembly in the past three years. Iran with 276 tons of sulfur consumption in 1381 was ranked 21 list of consumer sulfur. By 2006 more than 65 percent (8.2 million tons) of sulfur is added in excess of consumption in the Middle East.

Gvgrdhay kinds of industries:

· Organic sulfur containing 60% sulfur and 40% organic matter (compost material, manure - chicken).

· Golden biophosphat: condensed phosphate containing 60%, 20% sulfur, 16% of organic matter, 4% zinc and 300 g is Thiobacillus inoculants. This fertilizer is used in Iran.

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